Basic moments in football

Two teams meet on the football field, the task of which is to score more goals against each other. The match consists of two halves of 45 minutes with a break of 15 minutes. The referee monitors compliance with the rules and punishes those who violate them by the measures specified in the rules. If a

Each team has 11 players. The minimum number of players on the field is 7. During the match, up to 3 substitutions are allowed from each side. The basic rule of football is that the ball can only be touched with the feet, torso and head. Only the goalkeeper in his own penalty area has the right to touch with his hands.

Players and form

Each team has 10 field players and one goalkeeper. There are 3 main roles of football players – defenders, midfielders, attackers. There are no requirements for the number of each type of player. The decision on the scheme is made by the team coach. But the goalkeeper must always be alone.

The uniforms of the opponents must be different so that the referee and spectators can clearly distinguish between the opponents and the jersey numbers. Goalkeepers wear uniforms of a different color, and always stand out against the background of their own and other players. The referee usually wears a black, yellow or red uniform and is also highly visible on the field.

Moreover, each team has two types of standard kit – home and away. Frequent spectators of football matches can only look at the color of the kit to determine which teams are playing on the field, and even more, which of them are at home and who are away. If you are interested in learning how to distinguish footballers by uniform, then you can find all the necessary information on the official pages of the clubs.

Football field

There are requirements for the size of the football field, and its elements – goals, corner flags and markings. The length varies within 90-110 meters, and the width – from 65 to 80 m. The gates are located in the center of the front line of the opponents, opposite each other. They consist of two rods and one crossbar connecting them. Distances between stays – 7.32 meters, height – 2.44 m.

football field dimensions

There are markings on the field with a penalty area for opponents, a central circle, side and front lines for fixing outs and corners. If the ball goes beyond the sideline from a player of one of the teams, then the opponent’s player throws the ball from behind the line with his hands from behind his head.

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If the ball went beyond the front line from the player of the defending team, then a corner is served by the opponent from the corner flag area. When the ball crosses the end line after it has been touched by a player of the attacking team, an indirect free kick is taken from the defending opponent’s box.

Soccer ball

The main sports tool of football players is a ball with a circumference of 70 cm and a weight of 410-450 grams. It consists of a rubber chamber, a lining and a tire. Previously, the tire was leather, but it absorbed water and the ball became heavy.

Modern balls are made of polyurethane or PVC. These materials provide the product with the same weight, regardless of weather conditions. In addition, many stadiums have a retractable roof that protects the field and players from the rain. Therefore, the influence of weather conditions on the outcome of the match is significantly minimized.

Definition of a goal

The most important moment of a football match is fixing a goal (goal). This occurs after the ball has completely crossed the goal line on the ground or in the air. Strictly speaking, the projection of any point on the surface of the ball must be behind the goal line. This is how it looks in the pictures:

football rules in brief

This item must be included in the basic rules of football. Now fixing goals in dynamics is much easier. After all, recently the rule of video replays has been in effect, cameras and special equipment record a goal.


Another key rule in football is offside. The concept of offside has firmly entered football slang. What it is? When, during a pass or kick by a player of the same team, one or more partners are positioned behind all the opponent’s outfield players. Offside fixation occurs even in cases where any part of the player’s body is closer to the end line.

There is an interpretation of offside by the referee, the so-called “passive offside”. In the event that a player who is offside does not affect the episode – he lies on the lawn, stands aside and does not take part in the attack. In such a situation, the referee has the right not to fix the offside position.

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Previously, fixing outside the game caused a lot of controversy and rumors. But now, with the advent of video previews and a separate team of assistants, the number of errors has been significantly reduced.

free kicks, free kicks, penalties
For various offenses, the chief referee punishes the players with free kicks, free kicks and penalties. We will analyze each punishment separately.

A free kick is awarded towards the goal of the team that committed the violation of the rules. It could be:

  • Step;
  • Push;
  • Rough tackle;
  • Delay of the opponent;
  • Spitting, unsportsmanlike conduct;
  • Deliberate handball outside the box.

This is the main list of violations for which the referee awards a penalty. A player of the injured team may hit the goal with a direct kick. Before a kick is taken, the opponents must

be at least 9 meters away.

Free is assigned if:

  • The referee recorded a dangerous game;
  • The goalkeeper held the ball in his hands for more than 6 seconds;
  • The player blocked the movement of the opponent;
  • The goalkeeper has touched the ball after having lowered it to the ground;
  • The goalkeeper touched the ball with his hand after a deliberate pass from a partner.

A freeman can be appointed both in the penalty area and outside it. When a free kick is taken, a goal is not counted if the ball has not touched anyone. Therefore, such a standard position is played in several touches, or the ball is sent in such a way that it touches someone. Only in this case the goal will be counted.

Penalty (penalty kick) is awarded for the same violations as a free kick, but in the penalty area of ​​the defending team. The standard position is performed at a distance of 11 meters from the goal line from a special mark. During the execution of the kick, all players are located outside the penalty area, and the goalkeeper is on the goal line. The whistle is blown.

Why do players receive yellow and red cards in football?
When a player commits gross violations of the rules, the referee punishes him with yellow and red cards. There are main reasons why this happens. Let’s point them out.

Judges work

The card system has been around for a long time. For the first time it was used in 1970 at the World Cup match, which was held in Mexico. It appeared for a very understandable reason – the language barrier of the players and referees. If in home Championships there was no such problem, then in international matches, it became a real problem.

A football player who rudely stopped the opponent, tripped, thwarted a dangerous attack, deliberately touched the ball with his hand, clearly held the opponent, argued with the referee, used obscene language is punished with a yellow card. It is also given for violations of the rules of football. Three yellow cards will deprive the player of the right to play in the next match.

The red card goes to the player who received the second yellow card. Also, if a player commits a foul of last resort at a moment when a goal is imminent. For especially gross violations that lead to injuries, the referee is shown a red card. After that, the player leaves the field.

Such cases in football are not very frequent, but the situations in different matches may differ. There are record holders for red and yellow cards.

Bets on yellow and red cards

On websites and mobile applications of bookmakers, you can make a very unusual bet, namely on the number of yellow cards received in a certain match by a certain player. To be successful in this kind of betting, you should familiarize yourself with the personal statistics of players and teams, and find out how often they violate the rules of football.

Judges work

We presented the rules of football briefly, we will tell you how the work of referees is organized. A team of three referees enters the field – the main one and two assistants, located on the right and left edges. The final decision on all episodes is made only by the chief judge.

Linesmen will determine the outs and corners, and also help the main referee in fixing goals and violations. Assistants signal their decisions with the help of special flags. In addition to linemen, the main referee receives assistance from assistants located in the observation room.

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With the introduction of the video replay system, the work of judges has changed significantly. Most importantly, the number of referee errors has critically decreased. In a specially equipped room, people sit at monitors. Their task is to quickly analyze complex episodes and signal them to the chief judge. For example, about a violation in the penalty area, a goal, an offside position and other key episodes.

Having received the message, the chief referee stops the match and looks at the disputed episode on the monitor and makes the final decision. He can cancel a previously scored goal, appoint or cancel a penalty kick, record offside, show a red or yellow card to a football player …

Such viewing opportunities are not yet included in the futsal rules, but they already exist in other team sports.