Basketball: team and substitutes.
Each team consists of 5 main and 5-7 (in major tournaments) permanent substitutes, who can enter the game only after the game is stopped and the referee whistles.
While the team in possession is entitled to a substitution at every stoppage of play, the team not in possession of the ball is only entitled to a substitution in the event of a bounce and time-out or when the team in possession makes a substitution.
Basketball: game time.
In all classes, basketball matches last 2 halves of 20 minutes of pure time. The break between halves is 10 minutes. If at the end of the match the teams scored the same number of points, then extra time (5 minutes) is given to determine the winner.
Basketball: time out.
Each team is entitled to 2 time-outs in each half and 1 time-out in extra time. Coaches usually use the timeout to give players tactical instructions and make substitutions.
Basketball: the beginning of the game.
The game begins with the referee throwing the ball up in the center of the court between 2 players, each of whom tries to return the ball to his team. The rest of the team players are outside the center circle or in the front zone.
Basketball: movement rules.
According to this rule, the player who received the ball has the right to take only 2 steps (more precisely, 2 contacts with the floor). Touching the floor while receiving the ball (also catching the ball on the spot) counts as 1st contact. Jumping from a place with the ball in hand is a violation of the movement rule. Especially often this rule is violated during runs, at the beginning and at the end of dribbling.
At a certain point, an athlete can only dribble once. As soon as the athlete touches the ball with both hands or takes it with one or the other hand, the dribbling ends. If the athlete again continues to dribble, then this is considered a violation of the rules (double-dribbling). The ball is passed to the opposing team who put it in play from behind the touchline.
Basketball: stopping ball.
A stopping ball is such a game situation in which 1 or 2 players of each team are in contact with the ball and the ball is taken out of the game. In this case, the game continues with a controversial face-off.
Basketball: the ball is out of play.
Out of the game
If the ball or the ball carrier touches the boundary lines of the court or the floor, an object or a person outside the court, the referee gives the command “offside”.
In the event that the offside is difficult to determine, i.e. if both touch judges have different opinions or if the referees cannot determine which team caused the offside, the game continues with a controversial face-off.
After the game has been stopped in case of offside or technical errors (violation of the movement rule, double dribbling, violation of the 3 sec rule, etc.), the ball is put into play by a throw-in from behind the touchline. In case of a successful throw into the basket, a throw-in occurs from behind the end line.
Throwing the ball into the basket is counted if the ball falls through the ring and the net from top to bottom. For each successful shot made during the game, a shot from an average or close distance (closer than the three-point line), the team receives 2 points. For a successful shot from behind the three-point line (from a distance of more than 6 meters 75 cm (7.24 m in the NBA)), the team receives 3 points, for each successful free throw – 1 point.
Basketball: foul rule.
One of the most important rules of basketball is the foul rule (translated from English – “mistake”). There are personal and technical fouls.
Personal fouls include any intentional touching of an opponent (holding, pushing, hitting, blocking with hands and feet, etc.). In such cases, the ball is passed to the opponent for a throw-in. After the 11th foul in a half period, a foul on an opponent’s missed shot is punishable by 2 free throws.
In addition, all personal comments are recorded in the athlete’s personal card. If at the same time 2 players of the team receive a warning, then the opponent is entitled to 2 free throws. In most cases, the free throw is taken by the player against whom the rules were violated.
Players receive a mutual remark in case of simultaneous violation of the rules in relation to each other. In this case, a controversial throw-in occurs. Each player who has received 5 personal or technical remarks must leave the court. In case of gross and intentional violations of the rules, the athlete may be disqualified. But in both cases, the team has the right to change. Beginning in 1976, offensive fouls on basket shots were penalized particularly severely. If the ball misses the basket due to a foul, the attacker is entitled to 2 free throws. If the ball misses the basket on the 1st or 2nd free throw, the attacker is entitled to 1 more free throw (3 in total).
If, despite the foul, the player shoots the ball into the basket, then this shot is valid and the player
Receives an additional 1 free throw.
A technical foul is called for unsportsmanlike conduct by a player and is punishable by 2 free throws by any player on the opposing team.
A player who receives 5 personal and/or technical fouls (or 6 fouls in the NBA) or 2 unsportsmanlike fouls in a match must leave the playing court and may not take part in the match (but he is allowed to remain on the bench). A player who receives 2 technical warnings or a disqualifying foul is ejected from the pitch and must leave the match venue (the player is not allowed to remain on the bench).
Basketball: rules of the time.
Some of the rules of time are extremely important. 24 seconds after the throw-in, the attack must be completed with a throw into the opponent’s basket (24 second rule). The 3 second rule states that an attacker cannot be in the opponent’s free throw area for more than 3 seconds. For the throw-in and for the implementation of the free throw, the player is given 5 seconds. If the time rules are violated, the ball is given to the opponent for a throw-in.
The 8 second rule implies that the attacking team must, after a throw-in taken in their own half of the court, no longer than 8 seconds later bring the ball to the opponent’s half, after which the attacking team cannot return the ball to their own half.